Mohammed left Jiran for Mecca in order to perform Umra. After performance of Umra Mohammed appointed Aftab Ibn Muad as Governor of Mecca. For teaching Quran and impart religious instructions, Mohammed appointed Muaad Ibn Jabal. Thereafter Mohammed returned to Medina along with Mohajids.
After the surrender of Mecca and siege of Thaif there was no power in Arabia capable of any confrontation with Mohammed. The victory of Mohammed built a great impact on the Arab tribes. After Mohammed left Thaif, Dubair Ibn Suhair wrote to his brother Kaa Ibn Suhair that it should not be better for him to go to Medina to appear before Mohammed repenting in his rash conduct in making a poem defaming Mohammed or otherwise he will have to go to a far off place for his safety. On receipt of this message Kaa Ibn Suhair went to Mohammed and recited his poem. Mohammed accepted his repentance. Thereafter he lived as a good Muslim.
The leaders of many tribes began to approach Mohammed declaring their loyalty to Mohammed. The delegation of Thwayy tribe under the leadership of Saibul Quil approached Mohammed. Mohammed received them warmly. They had discussion and Mohammed was pleased with the leader of Saibul tribe and he renamed him as Saidul Qair. The entire tribe embraced Islam in the presence of Mohammed.
Aby Iy Ibn Hathil was a Christian who did not like Mohammed. Finding the impact created among other tribes, after the victory of Mohammed in Mecca and Thaib, he along with family members left for Syria. His sister became a prisoner. When she saw Mohammed she said, “Oh prophet of God, my father died and brother left for Syria and so mercy towards me.” Mohammed traced her father’s details and made a gesture to set her free. Mohammed gave a gift of valuable cloths and some money and sent her to Syria along with the caravan headed to Syria. She joined them and explained to her brother the special charity extended to her by Mohammed. On hearing this he came to Median and embraced Islam in the presence of Mohammed. Similarly many tribes and individuals came to Mohammed and declared their loyalty and embraced Islam. However Mohammed did not have enough peace of mind as his daughter Sainaba fell seriously ill. She had to undergo persecution and torture from Huail and Habbar all the time. She migrated from Mecca to Medina. At last she fell ill and died. With her death only Fathima was alive among the children of Mohammed.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 31-05-2013
In that situation the siege had to be extended. The circumstances in which war was prohibited also were put to discussions. Mohammed finally decided to return to Mecca with the idea of performing Umrah. He declared that after the holy month the Muslims will again march to the enemy on hide.
On the way back to Mecca Mohammed and his companions came to Jirah. A delegation of Hayasin tribe approached Mohammed. They discussed with Mohammed. One of them addressed Mohammed thus, “Oh! Prophet of God, These prisoners of war are your relation. They are either your father’s, sister’s or mother’s and those nursed you during your childhood. It is not necessary to remind you about this. You are so kind and generous.” The story of their relationship, which they told Mohammed was true. There was one old lady among the prisoners. The Muslim army behaved to her rudely. She raised her voice and said, “You should understand that I am a close relative of your leader.“ They could not believe it. They brought her to Mohammed. He recognized her as Shaima, the daughter of Haris Ibn Abdul Ussa. Mohammed spread his shawl on the floor and asked her to sit on it. Mohammed asked her whether she wanted to stay with him or go to her relatives. She liked to go with her relatives. Mohammed gave her permission to go to her relatives.
Mohammed then turned to other members of Havisan tribe and asked them whether they liked to have their women and children or their wealth. They answered, “They only wanted their women and children.“ Mohammed gave his share of booty and the share of the tribe of Abdul Muthalib. Mohammed said that his share of booty and that of the tribe of Abdul Muthalib will be returned to them. Mohammed set free their women and children. Later Malik Ibn Ous came to Mohammed and he embraced Islam. Mohammed returned to him their relatives, besides hundred camels.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 24-05-2013
The defeat of the Meccans in Humain marked the complete devastation of the Meccans. The price that the Muslims had to pay for this victory was heavy. The army of the enemy was lead by Malik Bin Auf. After the defeat he escaped along with the tribe with him. Mohammed ordered to march towards them and attack the tribe under the leadership of Malik Bin Auf. Malik was in a safe place well protected by force. The men of Malik was quite familiar with this kind of warfare.
The Muslims marched towards them and crossed Liyy. There was a fort belonging to Malik Bin Auf. The Muslims demolished the fort. They also demolished a building belonging to this tribe. They camped in a place nearby. Mohammed discussed with his companions regarding the future courses of action. The enemy tribe was watching the movement of the Muslims army from the top of their forts. They started aiming the Muslims and sending arrows. It was not easy for the Muslim army to attack the force which was well secured and protected. This necessitated some innovative techniques to win over the Meccans and to protect themselves from the attack of the Meccans with the arrows. The Muslims had to move to a safe place. Some Muslims lost their lives and some including the son of Abu Bekker got injured. Muslims started to attack them with cling.
A section of the Muslim army moved forward to attack all of the force. The enemy tribesmen were very closer and they started throwing at Muslims. Muslims started to retreat without waiting. Utilizing this opportunity the tribe of Haquib started to aim arms and in this process a few more Mulims lost their lives. The attempt of the Muslims to capture the forts was foiled. The only option open to Muslims was to attack and destroy those great gardens which were guarded. Those great gardens were famous in Arabia. The Muslims started to destroy the garden. Finding this the tribe leader sent a messenger to Mohammed with a message that it was open to Mohammed to take this great garden or to save them considering the blood relationship between them. Thereupon Mohammed commanded the army to stop destruction of this great garden. He declared that those who surrendered to him can except good treatment from him. Mohammed understood that they had preserved food for sufficiently long time.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 17-05-2013
Hearing the oath of Usman his brother said, “Stop talking! By God, I would prefer being put in prison by the Qureshis rather than the tribe of Havasi capture as prisoner.” This dialogue occurred when the Muslim army was getting shattered. Mohammed stood firm. A group of Mohajids and other relations created a circle around him. Addressing the members of the army, who were running away from the field, he asked, “Where are you running?“ He commanded to reinforce the army. That was not heeded to by the army. The tribe of Havasi came down into the position they were holding. Their commander was a person who was with a red camel. He was sitting on that camel while others started attacking the members of the Muslim army. The tribes of Havasin and Saqeb were also doing the same thing. Abbas shouted in loud voice “Oh Ansas who has given refuge and protection to Muslims were Mohajids who have taken oath to obey Mohammed rush for life?”
They repeated this and this made a surprising turn. They remembered the solemn oath that they had taken. They thought of their own reputation. They also saw Mohammed standing firm in the field, undisturbed by this attack. They returned to the battle field with renewed vigor, enthusiasm and courage. A terrible fight followed. Finally, the Muslim army shattered the line of enemies. Mohammed glorified God and said, “It is only now the war began. God will not violate the promise God has given to his prophet.” Finding that they were incapable of defeating the Muslim army, a few tribes started running away from the battle field leaving behind their women, children, animals and everything they had brought into the battle field. Around 6,000 persons were captured by the Muslim army, besides 20,000 camels and 40,000 sheep and 4,000 ounces of silver which the enemy left.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 10-05-2013
They considered that the Muslims were celebrating
their victory and it was the most appropriate time to attack them. Malik Ibn
Ous tried to organize Halasins and along with a few other tribes. A few of them refused to join. Duraib was an
old man belonging to Inushen tribe. He was too weak to actively participate in the
operation but he was very intelligent and had rich experience in the tactics of
war. Their consolidation of army consisted of even women and children and they
camped at Mutab valley. Duraib, who was blind asked Malik why he had brought
women, children, cattle and other properties to the battle field. He replied that it was done to confuse the
army. Duraib asked what would happen if they were defeated in the war. Could
anything be done by the defeated party to protect anything which was brought to
the battle field. He added “If we win the war credit should go the men who are
fighting. Ladies and old cannot contribute anything in this. And if you are
defeated in the war that properties will be taken away by the enemy as booty
and we shall be humiliated.”
Malik did not agree with the opinion of Duraib.
Others also endorsed Maliks view. Thinking that his conduct should not weaken
them Duraib also joined them. Malik ordered his army to shatter the enemy army
when they reached the valley of Umain hills. He thought that this unexpected
attack would shatter the Muslim army and they could easily defeat them and the
tribes of Umain will gain fame for crushing the Muslims and put an end to their
Muslim army camped at the valley of Umain in the night.
On the morning they resumed their journey. At that time tribe under the
leadership of Malik suddenly attacked them. The army started sending arrows one
after another towards the Muslim army. The Muslim army was shattered and they
started running away. Abu Sufian also
was there with the Muslim army. He saw the defeat of the Muslim army who were
under the pride on the conquest of Mecca made and said and the victory of
Muslims end. There upon Sheeba Ibn Usman who lost his father at the battle
field of Uhd swore to take to vengeance on Mohammed.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 03-05-2013
Mohammed reminded the Muslims present there that if
anybody says that the prophet of God has been in war in Mecca, tell him “Oh
tribe of Qusaa, God gave consent not to you but only to the prophet of God. Therefore
stop killing people. It is a great sin not
a thing can be achieved by that. If anybody is murdered hereafter, his heir has
the freedom to take vengeance or receive compensation from him.” In the
referred case, Mohammed paid compensation to the heir of the person who was
killed by the tribe of Qusaa. By solving the problem in this manner, Mohammed
made a public declaration that nobody should indulge in killing or committing
violence and set a very good example. This step naturally influenced the minds
of the Meccans and later it resulted in mass conversion of Meccans to Islam. He
said to the Meccans, “Oh people to whom I have utmost love. It means that you
had always been in an elevated position. If you had not rejected and expelled
me I would not have said these.” All these enhanced the respect of the Meccans
Abu Bekker produced his aged and blind father before
Mohammed. Mohammed had expressed his displeasure in bringing the old man before
him. He said that he should have gone to him. Mohammed invited him to sit by
his side and requested him to accept Islam. Abu Huwaav (the name of the father
of Abu Bekker) decided to embrace Islam. By exemplary conduct and extremely just
treatment, Mohammed conquered the hearts of the Meccans.
Mohammed stayed in Mecca for fifteen days. Muslims
were very much excited in the victory won by them without shedding any blood.
They rushed to the mosque when they heard the call for prayer. They accompanied
Mohammed to the Mosque. The Mohajids visited their old houses. It was then that
they received a shocking news that the tribe of Halasin who lived a few miles away
were marching against Muslims. Havasin tribesmen feared that the Muslims will
make them the next target for attack.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 26-04-2013
Mohammed’s declaration that you are free was a relief
to the Meccan people who had entered into a conspiracy to kill him and were
unleashing all kinds of torture and persecution against Mohammed and his
companions. There were people who waged various wars against the religion of
Islam. It was such people who stood before Mohammed with fear and anxiety,
without knowing what kind of punishment was awaiting them. To their great surprise
and relief, Mohammed declared that they are all free.
Mohammed entered into Kaba. There were statues and
pictures of prophets and angels, including the statue of prophet Abraham.
Mohammed removed all these pictures and statues from Kaba. The angels were depicted
in the form of beautiful women. There were idols of other saintly people also.
All these were removed. He convinced the Qureshis that these statues and idols will
not do any good thing to them.
The people of Medina who gave refuge to Mohammed and
Muslims were witnessing all these events. A fear arose in their minds that if
Mecca has surrendered to Mohammed whether Mohammed would make Mecca his
permanent place of residence. Mohammed found that something was disturbing the
minds of the people of Medina. He asked them about it. With some hesitation
they expressed their fear. Mohammed said, “My life is with you and my death
also will be with you.” Mohammed fully observed his treaty with them at Ataba.
He did not disappoint the people of Medina who stood by him during all his
After the victory over Mecca, the tribe of Qvatha
met with a man from the tribe of Hubai and they killed him. Mohammed knew about
this and he got angry. He went to the people and addressed them, “Oh people God
has given Purity to the city of Mecca from the time He created heaven and earth
till the day of judgment. That purity should be maintained. None who believes
in the world hereafter should shed blood or even cut a vein in Mecca. Nobody is
given permission to do so before and even to me only for a limited period that
such a permission shall given.” And immediately thereafter, this purity was
reestablished. He also asked all those present there to convey the message to
all who are not present.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 19-04-2013
Muslim army entered Mecca. Only the division at the command of Khalid Ibn Walid met resistance. Mecca was a place where the people had great hatred towards Mohammed. A few of the Meccans attacked Banu Bekker Qusa, an allie of Mohammed, in violation of the terms of treaty of Ubaidiya. They came forward to fight the Muslim army. In the forefront were Ikrima Bin Abu Jahai, Sawan and Suhail. When the division commanded by Khalid Ibn Walid was marching forward, these people started shedding arrows towards them. The Muslim camp lost two persons while the Meccans lost thirteen persons engaged in fighting. Finding that they would not be able to resist the Muslim army Ikrima and Fatwan ran away leaving their soldiers to the mercy of Walid.
Mohammed was happy about the victory won by the Muslim army peacefully without much resistance. It was at that time that Mohammed knew about the confrontation of a small division of army with this division at the command of Khalid Ibn Walid. Mohammed was very sad about that. And again he brought to the notice of the Muslim army about his declaration, not to kill anybody or shed any blood. The Muslim army informed him about the circumstances under which the division under the command of Walid was forced to fight with the army led by Ikrima and group, who attacked with arrows.
Mohammed camped at the place in the front of the mountain of Hint near the place where the viewed burial ground where Abu Talif and Khadija were laid to rest. He moved to his camp and then place from where he and his companions were expelled. He found that he is back in the same place with flying colours without much resistance. Mohammed thanked God for the mercy shown to him. He viewed the village valley and the surrounding mountain to which he used to retire whenever the behavior of Meccans turned unbearable. He was convinced that he has completed the task entrusted to him. He left the camp on his camel Ksaba for Kaba. He circambulated Kaba seven times and finishing circambulation he called Usman Ibn and asked him to open the doors of Kaba. Mohammed stood at the doors of Kaba and addressed the audients gathered at the mosque. They replied only goodness, “You are charitable, and the son of a charitable father.” Prophet said, “You are free. You can go.”
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 12-04-2013
Abbas arrived at Aracca. Abbas informed the Meccans of
the strength of the Muslim army and advised them that it would be better for
them to surrender without using any force. The conversion of Abu Sufian to
Islam did not anyway affect the Muslim army in their preparation to March to Mecca.
Abu Sufian commented to Abbas about the wonderful energy of the Muslims and said,
“These people did not have any strength before Abu Rassal (that was the pet
name of Abu Sufian). “By God, no doubt, the infants of your brother’s son would
be very powerful.” Abu Sufian started shouting, “Oh Qureshi, Mohammed is near
you with a wonderful army. If anybody enters my house he shall be fearless.
People who came inside the house and Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām will have also protection.”
Mohammed was continuing his march with the army
towards Mecca. They reached Duthuva. From there they examined the general
atmosphere. Then Mohammed found that the Meccans were not prepared for any
confrontation. Mohammed asked the army to stop there. He glorified Goid and
expressed gratitude to Him. At that moment, Abu Quhafa, father of Abu Bekker
who had not embraced Islam, asked his granddaughter to lead him Abu Quabis. She
reached Abu Qubais along with Abu Quahafa who was blind. He realized that the Muslim
cavalry was advancing towards Mecca and asked her to take him home immediately.
But before he could reach home cavalry entered Mecca and prevented them from
making further advance.
Mohammed commanded to divide the army into four. He
also commanded not to kill anybody or shed any blood except under very exceptional
circumstances. Hubain Bin Awam was to lead the army on the left side. Mohammed also
commanded that troop to enter Mecca through the northern side. Khalid Ibn Wahid
was entrusted to command the army of the right side. The leadership of the army
consisting of the people of Medina were entrusted to Saad Bin Ubada. They were commanded
to enter the city through western side. The leader of Mohajids, Abu Ubaida Bin Hadavala
was commanded to enter the city through the mountain side. Mohammed also joined
with them. As the army moved forward Saad Bin Ubada made a declaration that “Today
is the day of war when no valley is attacked.” When Mohammed heard this he took
back the flag with him and entrusted the flag to his son Quais who was not a
man of emotion like his father.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 05-04-2013
Mohammed thought that it would be fruitful to present Abbas as his delegate to Mecca. Riding on the wise horse of Mohammed, Abbas was about to leave to Mecca as his delegate when he heard the conversation between Abu Sufian and Budail. Abu Sufian remarked, “I did not see right end army as I witnessed tonight before.” Budail replied that they were tribesmen of Qusaa. Abu Sufian said, “Qusaan tribe was a known tribe and they would not be able to gather such a big army.” Abbas asked Abu Faisal, “Did you not see the prophet of God and the army marching towards Mecca? The Prophet will enter Mecca tomorrow and the Qureshis will be surprised.” Abu Sufian asked Abbas what should they do in the matter. Abbas took Abu Sufian on his horse and sent his companion to Mecca. He took him to the prophet. As they moved towards Mohammed, Umer recognized Abu Sufian and wanted to punish Abu Sufian in view of his past conduct. Abbas declared that he has given protection to Abu Sufian. There was dome exchange of words between Abbas and Umer. Mohammed intervened and asked Abbas to take his guest to the tent and meet him next morning.
Next morning, Abu Sufian appeared before Mohammed. Senior companions and Mohajids had gathered there. Mohammed turned to Abu Sufian and asked him whether he could not feel acknowledged that there is no other God except the One God. Abu Sufian replied “You are great and charitable. By God my belief was that there are partners to God and they would be useful to me, but that did not happen.” Again Mohammed asked whether he could not still acknowledge that Mohammed was the messenger of God. Abu Sufian again said, “You are great. But I am not free from my doubt.”
Abbas advised Abu Sufian to embrace Islam. Finding that he has no other choice Abu Sufian declared that there is only one God and Mohammed is his messenger. Then Abbas came to Mohammed and said, “Abu Sufian would be the person to be sad for some special position and asked Mohammed whether he should give some special position to him. Mohammed then declared “Whoever entered the house of Abu Sufian and whoever shut the doors of their houses and remain in their houses and those who entered must be safe and protected.”