The battle with the Byssantians and their withdrawal had created immense impactso
were the the victories in Mecca and
Hunain. Tahaif which strongly defended the attack from of Muslim was the first
to surrender after the battle of Tabuk. After this incident in Hunai, when
Mohammed was on attack, a chief leader of the tribe named Urwaa Al Masud was
there. When he returned to Tahib, he came to know about the victory of Mohammed
in the battle field of Tabuk. Without losing any time, he went to Mohammed and
embraced Islam. He also sought permission of Mohammed to spread the message of
Islam among his community. He was one among those who negotiated with Mohammed
to Hubaidiya treaty. Mohammed cautioned him about his personal security. When
he noticed the immeasurable enthusiasm of Uruva to take the message of Islam to
his people, Mohammed was quite aware of the loyalty shown to the message of
Islam. Mohammed was quite aware of the loyalty the people expressed hey tried
and bravery. Urva responded, “O prophet of God, They love me very much.”
He started his mission of spreading Islam. Tribe had
consultations on the question how to meet this situation. They could not reach
among women. The next day Urva stood on the top of his house and called for
prayer. With this the prophesy of Mohammed about him was about to materialize.
The people could not tolerate the conduct of Urva. They encircled him and
arrows were shot to him. He fell down. The family members were disturbed.
Before taking his last breath, he told them, “This is the respect given by God.
The martyrdom offered to me is that of a king compared to the martyrdom of the
diseased, who participated in the battle of Thalib and lost their lives.” He
asked them to bury him near the tombs of martyrs at Talib. The next day he took
them to the top of the house and called for prayer.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 09-10-2013
Mohammed had great affection towards Ifsan Ibrahim.
However, that did not last for long. Before completing one year, a serious
illness took away his life. It was great shock to Mohammed and his followers
realized the depth of sorrow Mohammed had. The wise among them reminded
Mohammed what he had said in connection with mourning of people on the death of
their beloved ones. Mohammed then explained that he did not prohibit people feeling
sorrow on the death of their dear ones but only disapproved crying aloud on
such occasions. He added what they are witnessing in him is only the reflection
of his love and compassion. Those who did not express compassion do not receive
back any compassion. Following this he tried to pacify Maria the mother of the
child and said, “O! How child is being in glorified the paradise.” The dead
body was taken by Mohammed and Uncle Abbas to Baque, the burial ground and they
offered Janasa prayer under the leadership of Mohammed and laid the body to
rest in the burial ground.
After the battle of Tabuk Islam rapidly spread
throughout Arabian Penninsula. Mohammed on return from Tabok to Madina found
that there was a visible change in the attitude of people among the non believers
of Medina. Islam conquered the hearts of the people of Yemen. Yenen, Hazarnouth
and Oman. Byssantians who defeated Persians had to withdraw from the
territories occupied by them. Persia was
a power which occupied Yemen and neighbouring lands for a long period. The
Muslims reached Yemen and the neighbouring Arab lands. There was nothing to
prevent them from bringing the territories under the sway of Islam. They found
Mohammed retaining persons who embraced Islam in their position. All these
helped them to develop a brotherly attitude towards Mohammed. Thus the tenth year of Hijra became the year of
delegations from different parts of Arabia, who came to Medina and embrace
Islam in a big way.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 01-10-2013
Muslims did not accept their presence and severed all contacts with them for fifty days. Then came the revelation to Mohammed indicating the acceptance of their repentance. The hypocrites had hidden agenda and Mohammed realized failure to take strong action against them will result in undermining the morale of the true believers. The agenda of the hypocrites was to create division among the Muslims and weaken their strength. They built a mosque at Duanan and they frequently assembled there and discussed ways and means how to weaken the morale of true believers. They invited Mohammed to inaugurate this mosque by offering prayers there. It was before the battle of Tabuk.
Mohammed asked them to wait until he returned from Tabuk. Mohammed was fully convinced about their conspiracy and hidden agenda. Therefore, he commanded to demolish this mosque. It was a lesson to all hypocrites. They became frightened, except their leader Abdulla Ibn Ubay. There was none to give them shelter or refuge. Abdulla Ibn Ubay died two months after the battle of Tabuk. Ever since Muslims came to Medina, Abdulla Ibn Ubay was entertaining great hatred towards them. However, Mohammed took special care to see that no disrespect to his dead body was shown by Muslims. He offered prayer for him and spent at the burial ground till the body was buried. With the death of Abdulla Ibn Ubay the nuisance created by the hypocrites came to an end. The rest of them returned to be good Muslims and the Arabian Peninsula became free from all external attacks. Many new delegations came from different parts and embraced Islam.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 30-08-2013
However, if Byssantians made an attack through the Border States there was the possibility of the rulers helping them. Therefore Mohammed sent Khalid Bin Walid along with five hundred horsemen to Dhuma and Mohammed returned to Medina with the rest of the army. The ruler of Dhuma had gone with his brother for hunting. Taking note of this opportunity, Khalid attacked Dhuma. There was no serious resistance. He captured the ruler Ukaid, imprisoned him and asked him to open the gates of the city. In the meanwhile, Mohammed sent a message to Yohannan Bin Ria who was an important ruler of Aila, a border native state, asking him to surrender or face the war. On receipt of the message Yohannan came to Mohammed and proclaimed his loyalty to Mohammed and entered into a treaty with him. Similarly the natives of Jabral and Udurib also made valuable presence and entered into treaties with Mohammed.
As directed by Khalid Bin Walid, the city gates of Dhuma was opened. He took out into custody 100 captives, 800 camels and 400 bags of wheat and went to Medina along with the captive Ubaydir. He embraced Islam in the presence of Mohammed. The treaties entered with the ruler of Aila and the nearby states ensured the protection of the borders of the Arabia peninsula from the attack of Byssantians. However, the army did not properly understand the importance and the significance of these treaties they entered. They felt, after crossing the desert, undergoing many hurdles and making sacrifices that they did not make any gain. As the result of the peace treaties, they could not collect any booties or material gains from the people who surrendered and proclaimed loyalty. Therefore, some of them evaluated this venture as a misadventure. This information reached Mohammed. Mohammed handled the situation and took the army into Medina. Then Khalid Bin Walid reached Mecca along with the cattles, corns and Ukaidir. Ukkaidir had worn coats woven wit golden thread and the people of Medina was wonderstruck at the site of Ukkaidir with this sort of pomp and glamour.
Those who failed to join the army were feeling tension and as those who criticized the venture were conscious of the mistake they made. They approached Mohammed and tried to explain the reason for their conduct, which was not really genuine. Three of them confessed their mistakes and proved their loyalty. They were Kabba Ibn Malik, Munavar Ibin Rabbik and Halak Ibn Ubbayya.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 23-08-2013
At Mecca all sorts of oppositions were suppressed; it was then that Mohammed heard that the Byssantians are marching towards them. Lot of preparations were required for the Muslims to face a big force like that of Byssantians. He asked the tribes to organize a big army. There was a pretty good response to the call of Mohammed. They all came forward ready to march through the desert leaving behind their home and possessions. However, there were some people who refused to participate in the war. They were hypocrites who had embraced Islam for personal gains. Mohammed asked one of them whether he had any objection to be part of the army. He replied, “O, prophet of God, please give me exemption; please don’t put me into trouble. It is a fact that there is nobody who may match me. But when I see Byssantian women, I am afraid that I may lose may patience.” In the meanwhile some people assembled secretly. No one knew about this. The purpose was to create confusion and put fear in the minds of the people about war.
Mohammed formed a group under the leadership of Thahell Abdulla. Some people came forward with support and Haffar contributed one thousand Dinars. The rich people followed him and contributed accordingly. The poor people also cooperated according to their ability. Some among them were not able to raise funds for travel expenses. Mohammed told them that he has not sufficient resources to take them along with. They got frustrated and started weeping. Because of tears in their eyes they were called Dukaven. There were eight thousand soldiers in the army. Mohammed made arrangements for carrying on the administration in Medina, in his absence. Mohammed recruited Mohammed Bin Masalma to look after the affairs of the state. He also entrusted Ali to look after his domestic affairs. In Mohammed’s absence Abu Bekker led prayer till the prophet started from Medina and took over the command of the army. Abdulla Ibn Ubayy had joined the army along with his tribe. Mohammed thought that it would be better that he and his army remained in Medina because Mohammed had doubt about his integrity. Mohammed commanded the army to march towards Sham. Ten thousand horsemen followed the army. Abu Khaisema who witnessed return home. His wives were waiting for him with eatables. He reamarked, “Should I seek pleased with behind while prophet of God was in desert suffering from scorching sun and terrible heat. Please help me to join the army. Thus Abu Khaisema joined the army. The army advanced towards Hijr. There were remnants of ancient Byssantian buildings, constructed by the tribe of Hamud. A carving out from the rock, Mohammed ordered the army to rest there. He advised them not to go out in the night without the company of other persons. It was a place swept by strong winds of sand. In the morning they found that the well was filled with sand. There was not even a drop of water to drink. They were very much worried not knowing where they would get water, to quench their thirst. They had to travel still long distance. Suddenly the atmosphere became cloudy and the rains started. They drank the rain water and also collected it.
The army marched forward to Thabuk. The Byssantians by that time came to know about the march of the Muslim army and its strength. The army of Byssantians which was moving towards Thabuk was forced to retreat. They thought that it would be better for them to take refuge in the fort where Mohammed and his army came. They found that the Byssantian army has already withdrawn. A tribe residing at the border had already made peace treaty with Mohammed and therefore there was no reason to apprehend an attack against the Byssantians anymore.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 16-08-2013
The domestic problem did not in any way affect the administration of the affairs of the state. The surrender of Mecca and the conversion of its inhabitants to Islam, increased the responsibilities of Mohammed. The mosque at Mecca was a holy place of the entire Arabia and they were conducting pilgrimage to Mecca from generations. Now, its’ custody and administration came into the hands of Mohammed and the new religion. Along with this the expenditure of administration also increased. To meet this contingency, a levy of ten percent of agricultural produces was imposed on the Muslim farmers. Later, this levy was made applicable to persons belonging to other faiths also. The tribes in Mecca generally accepted this levy, and readily discharged their obligation. The only exception to this was the tribe of Mustalac and the grant tribe of Banu Thanebm.
Mohammed endorsed a man to collect the share of levy from the sub tribes. Then some persons belonging to Banu Khamsa a sub tribe of Banu Khanim armed themselves with weapons, confronted him and forcefully expelled him from the locality. It was done before levy was demanded fromsub tribe Banu Amu Hanwar. On knowing this, Mohammed sent fifty horsemen under the leadership of Unaina Bin Hisisn in order to meet the attackers. They attacked them and made some of them captives. Others ran away for their lives. Among the tribes, there were some Muslims belonging to Banu Talib. They had fought with Mohammed in the battle of Umain and also they had participated in the conquest of Mecca. There were others who remained in the old religion. They came to know about the calamity that was faced by the members of their tribes at the hands of the horsemen.
They sent a delegation consisting of the chieftain of the tribe to Mohammed. They entered the Mosque and shouted, ‘Mohammed come out down’, standing behind the room of Mohammed. Mohammed did not like this behavior. It is at that time the calls for the mid day prayers came and Mohammed came out of the room. On seeing him they complained about the treatment meted out to the members of their community by the Muslim army. They mentioned about their participation in the battle of Umain and they stated that they have come to enter into a debate with Mohammed and his followers. They sought the consent of Mohammed for that. The orator among them by name Uthuwaria Bin Khajiu stood up and presented his argument. When he finished Sabit Bin Quais stood up to make his argument with him. Thereafter the poet among them Hibri Khan Nin Baday stood up and recited a poem. Hasman Bin Sabit replied to him. The debate came to an end. Aqrat Bin Habis said, “By my father, the resource of Mohammed and his companions is wonderful. It outstands far greater than that of ours and their poet is far greater than our poet.” All the members of the delegation agreed to that. Mohammed released all the captives as requested by them.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 05-07-2013
A rumour spread among the community saying that Mohammed is going to diverse his wife. His wives, who very much regretted on their own conduct, were also afraid not knowing what was the fate that await them. The suspense continued for a month. The Muslim community remained in utter confusion regarding the decision Mohammed is going to take in the case of his wives. It was at this situation that Umer wanted to meet Mohammed. He went to his house and asked Rubbah who was at the door to seek permission to meet Mohammed. Rubbah went to Mohammed and passed the request of Umer. Rebbah returned but did not respond to Umer saying that the invitation was not allowed by Mohammed. Umer repeated his request. Even then Rebbah did not respond. Umer raised his voise and asked Rebbah to get consent for his entry. He also said, “The prophet would have mistaken that I came pleading for Hafsa. By God if the prophet asks me to cut off her head, I would do so.”
Umer finally got the consent to meet Mohammed and he entered the room. Mohammed asked him why he was there. When Umer explained the reason, Mohammed responded, “Peace of mind is necessary to exercise prophet hood.” Umer said, “Oh prophet of God, what kind of discomfort caused you by your wives?” There was rumour in the air that he was going to diverse his wives. The Muslims were very much annoyed. People gathered in the mosque in a mood of great anxiety, not knowing what was to happen. Mohammed explained that he did not diverse his wives and Umer asked his consent to report the matter that he did not diverse his wives. He proclaimed in a loud voice that Mohammed did not diverse any of his wives.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 28-06-2013
Bad odor was always unbearable to Mohammed. Mohammed came to one of them. Hafsa asked him whether he had eaten Jofir. Mohammed replied, ”No, I have only consumed honey from the house of Saineb. Hereafter I will not drink it.” Souda, another wife of Mohammed also expressed the same opinion that bad odor emanated from Mohammed. That was part of the conspiracy entered into between Hafsa and Aisha. Mohammed replied, “No.” He said that Saineb had given some honey. Souda replied, “Oh she might have collected honey from the flowers of Gofir.” Sufia also said the same thing. Mohammed thereupon took oath that he would not consume honey thereafter. When Souda attempted to express regret, Aisha prevented her from doing it.
Mohammed’s wives were taking such a liberty with him. It was Mohammed who gave women such freedom which they did not enjoy before. Once, Mohammed’s wife Hafsa went to her parent’s house. During that time Maria came to Hafsa’s house to see Mohammed and spent some time there. In the meanwhile Hafsa returned home and waited for the exit of Maria. Hafsa did not like the conduct of Maria. As Maria went out, Hafsa entered into the house filled with anger and said, “I saw one who was here. By God, you have humiliated me. If you had any consideration for me you would not have done it.” Finding the enormity of the anger in her face, Mohammed wanted to please her and told her that if she agreed not to disclose this event to anyone else he would not visit Maria hereafter. She agreed, but the jealousy that conquered her mind made it impossible for her to conceal this. She passed on this news to Aisha and Aisha made enquiry about this to Mohammed. Mohammed realized that Hafsa had violated her promise. He thought that she would pass this news to others also. There was nothing odd in the behavior of Mohammed in the incident mentioned above. However both Aisha and Hafsa entertained jealousy about the love and affection Mohammed had shown to Maria. Similarly, Saineb had a feeling that Mohammed was showing more affection and love towards Aisha. This behavior with wives pained Mohammed and he distanced himself from his wives for about a month. Nobody dared to ask him about this. In the meanwhile, he was trying to take the message of Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula. However Abu Bekker and Umer, were worried about the fate which awaits their daughters.
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 21-06-2013
Asked, If Hafsa’s daughter is in the habit of criticizing
the prophet, she replied, “By truth we use to criticize him.” I inducted her
and said, “Beware of God’s punishment and anger of the prophet.” Ummu Selma
said, “Oh son of Khatab. “Your conduct is very strange. You are interfering
with everything. Are you going to interfere in the affairs of the prophet and
his wives ?”
There is another story quoted by Muslin. Once Abu
Becker came to the residence of Mohammed and sought his permission for entry
into his room. He was given permission. Accordingly, he entered into the room.
He saw Mohammed sitting gloomy in the midst of his wives. Soon after Umer also
came and sought permission of Mohammed for entry to his room. Permission was
accordingly granted. He also saw Mohammed sitting amidst his wives in a gloomy mood. With a view to change the
mood of Mohammed Umer said, “Oh prophet of God, if Binthu Kharij bargain with
you for maintenance, I would have given her a clear place.” Mohammed laughed
and said. “They have surrounded me demanding maintenance.” Hearing this Abu
Becker gave a slap on his daughter Aisha. Umer also slapped his daughter Hafsa.
He asked, “Are you demanding something which is not within the reach of the
prophet?” Thereupon the wives of Mohammed said, “By God, you see that we did
not demand anything from the prophet.”
Once Mohammed did not go to mosque, that became a
matter of talk among the people. The reason for Abu Becker and Umer go to
Mohammed residence was this. It is in this background that the following verse
was revealed in the Quran. “Oh prophet, tell your wives, if you want the world and the material and
its resources, I will leave you …. If you want Allah and his prophet and his
wives thereafter, God will reward to the righteous among you.” There is another
incident which would reveal the liberty with him used by his wives. Once
Mohammed went to his wife Saineb’s house. He stayed there longer than usual. It
was not liked by his other wives. Aisha said, “I and Hafsa decided to say when
Mohammed comes, some bad odor was emanating from his mouth.”
By Hon. Justice P K Shamsuddin on 14-06-2013
Her sisters Rukiya and Qmmu Kulhum had died earlier. Mohammed felt deep sorrow in the death of Sainaba. He remembered how she loved her husband, Abul Bin Rabbay, who was a prisoner in the battle of Badr. She offered to pay money as ransom money to release him. She was a Muslim but her husband was a non Muslim. He fought against Muslims in the battle of Badr. Had the Muslims were defeated in the battle, her own father Mohammed would have been killed. In spite of all these she had loved her husband very much and she came forward to offer ransom for the liberty of her husband. Such was her love for her husband.
Mohammed also remembered the suffering of Sainaba due to prolonged illness. Mohammed was a person who had great concern for the poor and suffering. He used to travel to the suburbs of Medina to visit suffering persons and give relief to them. Now, his own daughter died after great suffering. His sorrow did not last for long. A boy was born to Mohammed through Maria. He named him Ibrahim. Maria was presented to Mohammed by an Egyptian emperor Muquaqus. Maria became pregnant when Mohammed was nearing 60. He was overjoyed on the birth of Ibrahim. Naturally, this generated jealousy in the minds of other wives of Mohammed. Mohammed’s great affection to this boy escalated their jealousy. One day, Mohammed took Ibrahim and approached Aisha. Mohammed asked about the boy’s similarity with the features of Mohammed. She remarked that she could not find any similarity of the boy with Mohammed. She added, If any child gets nursing and care as Ibrahim got, he would have similar beauty and health as that of Ibrahim. This was a clear indication of the jealousy of the wives of Mohammed at the birth of Ibrahim in Maria.
Such a conduct from the sides of his wives was quite natural. Mohammed had bestowed such a high status and position to them which was unknown to the then Arabian Society. Umer had said, “By God, until the Holy words were revealed about women, the Meccans had not given any importance to their rights.“ Once I was about to grant permission for some purpose, then wives asked me whether he could not do in this day. I said, that you need not interfere with the thing I wanted to do. Then she said, “Umar Bin Quatab, your conduct is surprising. You won’t allow me criticize you but your daughter Afsa used to criticize the prophet in such a way that anybody would have shown and the whole day. When I heard these I went to Hafsa my daughter and asked her are you in the habit of educating masses in such a way?”